It is therefore not surprising that the observation and monitoring of the progression of the sun, moon, and stars is a central feature in many traditional, agrarian societies, where celestial activity is believed to directly influence the mechanics of earthly life. . Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Folklife Society Archive, Myrin Library, Ursinus College. A separate version of the game was released for Game Boy Advance, but the gameplay, arenas and … Donmoyer, Patrick. His geometric composition was intricate and meticulous, and he combined high-contrast colors in the star points with subtle variations in the border. Gift of Esther (Hill) Derr, Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University. The guest curator is Patrick Donmoyer, director of the Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center at Kutztown University. Artists and craftspeople carved, embroidered, wove, painted, and inscribed the same celestial patterns on decorated chests, butter-molds, coverlets, spoon-racks, spice-boxes, cheese-presses, tape-looms, rifles, powder horns, musical instruments, trivets, and wood-working tools. Figure 39: The Baltimore Sun Magazine of October 14, 1954, featuring Johnny Ott (1890-1964), self-proclaimed “Professor of Hexology” and owner of the Lenhartsville Hotel. Not available to business cardholders. Figure 2: A Classic Decorated Pennsylvania Barn, Albany Township, Berks County, ca. Around one percent were Roman Catholics.7, What originally unified them, in all their diverse creeds and places of origin, was the German language, spoken in a wide variety of distinctive dialects at the time of immigration. If you do not, interest will be charged on the promo purchase from the purchase date. Each almanac is essentially an annual household reference booklet, and includes the liturgical church calendar of saints’ days and festivals, charts of the lunar phases, the day-to-day progression of the zodiac constellations and planets, as well as calculations for the appearance of comets, eclipses, and other astronomical phenomena. Although many people have assumed that “ghosts” are intentionally carved, they are not. Whether in planting or harvesting, felling trees or tilling the soil, baking bread or fermenting vinegar, breeding or slaughtering livestock, bearing children or getting married, there were believed to be appropriate days of the week, times of the month, phases of the moon, saints’ days, or alignments of celestial bodies which would either positively or negatively affect the outcome of life events.61 This system was an attempt to harmonize the progression of human life with the progression of the heavens, and was believed to be the manifestation and visible order of the divine will. These include decorative borders on the bottom edge of the siding, or in vertical stripes along the edges and dividing the front siding into equal areas, as is common along the border of Western Berks and Lebanon. 78 Information in this section on the life of Milton Hill comes from three sources: Interviews with Harold and Esther (Hill) Derr and Lee Heffner in Virginville in 2012; Milton Hill’s Ledger at the Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University; and Zehner, Olive G. 1953. “The Hills from Hamburg.” The Pennsylvania Dutchman, IV(2): 16, 13. 24 Maurer, Gilgian. Upon the brink of death! As integrating features, barn stars are not simply decorations applied to the barn, but an important part of the overall architectural plan that visually connects and completes the appearance and function of the structure. & plague. Just as humanity has marveled at the stars in the sky throughout history, and sought some sense of meaningful interpretation of their order and light, so too have these folk art depictions of the stars evoked a sense of wonder in all who behold them. It is perhaps with this in mind that Eric offers a most compelling explanation of the rotational qualities of his stars. 54 In the Collection of the Schwenkfelder Library and Heritage Center. These early gravestones commonly record the biographical descriptions of the lives of the faithful departed, including the dates of birth and death, the age at the time of death, as well as the names of spouses or parents, the number of children, or even an occupation or locations of birth and death. He is shown here with a sun-and-rain sign, supposed to bring crop fertility.” This staged shot depicts Ott working in his studio in his classic tophat, which he later abandoned in the 1960s to don a flat black hat like that of the Amish of Lancaster County. Figure 35: A Milton Hill star re-creation, painted on weathered barn wood at the Kutztown Folk Festival in 2016, modeled after a star from the Leiby Homestead in Virginville, by barn star artist Milton J. Hill (1887-1972) of Virginville, Berks County, ca. Figure 11: A four-pointed star from the Berks-Lehigh border with symmetrical arrangements of raindrops, suggesting the opening of a flower. While they are not strictly representational, these abstract designs became widely accepted as images of the stars over thousands of years of folk-cultural use across the globe. Eric Claypoole has worked with the Hex Tour Association for over a decade, and has repainted many of the finest examples of Berks County’s decorated barns. Eric then uses a trammel compass, a straight edge, and a triangle pattern of 30° - 60° - 90° to create a basic layout in pencil for the star pattern. He not only painted his original designs on barns, but he also undertook the repainting of historic barn stars. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. Milton had been painting for decades before this word was invented and came into common use, and he deeply resented that his work, and the work of fellow artists in the region, was subjected to this interpretation. Egelman depicted himself in the very center with the horn of a messenger, proclaiming his astronomical observations for the glory of his divine creator.70. Pennsylvania Dutch is spoken by over 400,000 people in North America today, and it is considered one of the fastest growing small minority languages in the United States, with the core of its speakers in the plain communities of the Old Order Amish and Mennonites.8. This particular motif is commonly accepted as a symbol of resurrection, and repetitions of three invoke the Trinity. Elsewhere on the same structure, an inspirational inscription is also proudly displayed in letters large enough to be read from a short distance: Nicht im Feld und auf den Bäumen, in den Herzen muss es keimen, wann es besser werden soll. This was not particularly helpful to visitors from New York, New Jersey, or California, who had neither barns, nor geographic proximity to Berks County. The reference to time, therefore, is an important element in the interpretation of celestial symbolism. Barn stars weather in the elements, and the interaction between the rays of the sun and the surface of the wood produces a pronounced relief over the course of many years. The Lord can build and he can destroy; he can give and he can take to each as it pleases him. .”64 The Old Testament is not the only place in which the celestial sphere is celebrated as a means of understanding the will of the divine. These payments may be higher than the payments that would be required if this purchase was a non-promo purchase. Hill began painting this star pattern on barns in 1902 at the age of 14. This latter example occurs on an original wooden date-board set into the masonry of the gable end of an English bank barn, which was modified with the addition of a forebay to match the local Pennsylvania barns favored by the Pennsylvania Dutch. 1950 in his studio at his farm west of Virginville, Berks County. Figure 21: A six-pointed rosette on the carved keystone above the door of the 1767 New Hanover Lutheran Church, serving the oldest continuous German Lutheran congregation in America, located in New Hanover Township, Montgomery County. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. Celestial motifs were present at an overwhelming majority of life’s transitions in early Pennsylvania, whether they are found on a decorated cradle at the beginning of life; on a hand-illuminated certificate for the baptism of a child; on a decorated blanket chest given to a young bride at her wedding; on an inscribed blessing stone of a new home; on the façade of a well-maintained barn; or on the headstones of the faithful departed. This inspired silkscreen artist Jacob Zook to mass produce a stylized Distlefinkas a hex sign in the 1950s, and it is still widely available at tourist destinations in Lancaster County today. Barn stars are rarely found west of the Susquehanna, except for traditional wooden applique stars found in Bedford, Somerset, and Washington counties. Glencairn Museum staff photo. Pokémon - I Choose You! Heilman Collection of Patrick J. Donmoyer. Looks down, and Minimum interest charge is $2. This intricately carved headstone reads: “Departed this life, Rosina McGartney, the daughter of John McGartney & Elizabeth his wife, born and departed May 27, 1784.” This tragic inscription is now only partially legible, having been worn away by the elements over time. Certain contemporary painters, such as Eric Claypoole of Lenhartsville, Berks County, draw upon oral history in the region to describe what the stars may represent numerically. Hearts depicted the seat of the human soul and its capacity to experience both mortal and divine love, while the skull, crossed bones, the hourglass, and the sickle represented the death of the body, and the harvesting of the soul.40. These celestial images followed early Pennsylvanians through life, offering many layers of meaning to common human experiences. See Moyer 2003; and Winkler 1973. This restored sixteen-pointed star is one of a series from a barn in Windsor Castle, Berks County. Minimum monthly payments required. Although this is not necessarily a rule across all Anabaptist groups, it is certainly discouraged as a whole across the plain communities. We reserve the right to discontinue or alter the terms of these offers at any time. Terms of Use | 46 Other examples of this carver’s work include stones in the cemeteries at Emanuel Lutheran, Brickerville, Old Zion (Royers) Reformed, Brickerville, and the Ephrata Cloister. In the absence of a stone gable, star patterns and date inscriptions were painted directly onto the siding of the barn, although the new location of preference was on the front forebay wall, where details like names or dates were closer to the viewer and far easier to read. Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, Kutztown University. Interestingly, while many of these traditional motifs are commonly identified as “stars,” it is rarely considered that the geometric expression of a star is quite different from the visual form of an actual star, which appears as a point of light in the celestial sphere. Courtesy of Patrick J. Donmoyer. On June 11 and 12, Hill and his assistant each put in 22 hours painting the stars, for a total of 52 ¼ hours. Who often from the skies, As with many agricultural societies, the Pennsylvania Dutch possess a well-developed system of beliefs concerning the movements of the heavens and their effects on earthly processes, as well as on botanical, animal, and human affairs. And borders suggesting the petals of a healthy Folk tradition, and stains art than the payments that be. But visible in an old Photograph in the recess behind the medallion, Canton Solothurn in.. Geometric stars of varying numbers of points the Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center ; compare earlier! 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